Friday, January 10, 2020

Virgin Atlantic Case Study

Atlantics primary problem is that they were operating in the middle of the optimal utility model. Their slogan had become â€Å"Offering a First Class service at less than First Class fares†. In which Virgin Atlantic Is offering high quality at a low cost, which keeps them In the middle and not profitable. It seems that Virgin Atlantic did not take Into account that offering a premium service as they were would come at a premium cost for them and when throwing In low cost fares Into the mix they were reading a loss and expectations they will not be able to sustain for a long time.Starting off as a low cost premium airline aimed towards the business class may have been there way into the market and obtain market share but at some point they needed to work their way out of the middle of the optimal utility model and shift either towards high quality or low cost, not both simultaneously to stay profitable. Seeing that there number one goal was to provide premium innovative servic es/ products they could have gone the route that Apple Inc. As done by providing innovative premium products at a premium prices rather than setting themselves up for future losses.A recommendation for Virgin Atlantics primary problem of operating In the middle of the optimal utility model, In which consumers want either high quality or low cost products and services. Virgin should keep moving forward with innovation and providing a premium experience for all of their passengers but do it at a higher price so that they do not create any losses. Another route to go in would be to become a upper low cost provider for their business class niche and stop spending on infilling entertainment and amenities and focus only on cutting costs which would allow them to be profitable as a low cost air transportation provider.Another secondary problem is that during Virgin Atlantics pursuit to be innovative, top management neglected to make innovations that would help the company in terms of lower ing costs and Increasing profit. They only focused on innovations that benefited the consumers and not any self-interest. For example when Virgin Alertness management team decided that they did not want passengers to feel bored, they came up with innovative ways to keep them entertained during their flights such as pioneering individual video screens for every seat.But innovations like that did not help them cut any costs or increase fares significantly enough to increase profits or reduce costs. A recommendation in regards to creating innovations to help reduce costs and increase profits would be for Virgin Atlantic Airways to partner with small shipping impasses who could buy cargo space on Virgin Atlantic flights that are not at full capacity, so that they can generate more revenue on flights that are not traveling full of passengers.Another Innovative Idea would be to use the Individual video screens that they pioneered as ad space in the Mid and Economy class section of their p lanes. By doing so Vulgar Atlantic would be able generate additional revenues by selling ad space to advertisers, which would allow them to lower their cost per route,

Thursday, January 2, 2020

The “Freedom” Model of Criminal Justice A Critical Analysis - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 15 Words: 4477 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/02/20 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Criminal Justice Essay Did you like this example? Introduction â€Å"Criminal justice is controversial, not because the list of its goals is controversial, but because people differ over which are most important and which are to be given low-quality priority† (Sanders, 2010, p.47). There have been many disputes arising over the role of the criminal justice system in dispensing justice. Often criticized are the practices by police, prosecutors, or courts which are thought to implement a â€Å"too harsh† enforcement which leads to the selective use of police discretion and disproportionate imprisonment of some groups. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The â€Å"Freedom† Model of Criminal Justice: A Critical Analysis" essay for you Create order Alternatively, there are those who claim that some of these practices are â€Å"too lax† in their enforcement which allegedly leads to the belief that suspects and defendants are let off too easily. As Daly puts it, justice to some is an injustice to others, and the vice versa is also true (2012, p.4). The two principles of justice: freedom and equality, have been revised over the years in a bid to repress the endless violent wave of crime. However, this reestablishment may have led to a disorder in the process of goal prioritization. It becomes even more difficult in a capitalist economy such as the United States since the state, and its legal system exists to secure and perpetuate the capitalist interests of the ruling class. Disproportional reward Is the most effective way of maintaining capitalism (Potter and van den Haag, 2014, p.3). The result has been the introduction of various approaches to justify the methods used to pass justice. The current report critically analyz es the â€Å"Freedom Approach† proposed by Andrew Sanders and its relevance and efficiency when applied in the criminal justice system. It argues that the model not only satisfies the core values of justice, but it is also effective in reducing crime prevalence. The analysis will begin by stating the purpose of the research. The purpose describes the motivation behind the selected topic and what it hopes to gain at the end of the analysis. Following this is a section that includes a brief description of Andrew Sanders’ freedom approach and the principles and arguments that form its foundation. With that in mind, the research will then focus on its necessity, and why it has been found to be an integral part of the criminal justice. The critical analysis will evaluate the soundness of the approach using the criminal justice core values as the measures from which the comparison can be made. Further, the open criticism of the method will be employed in the research, and the counterargument made in response to it. Finally, a conclusion regarding the relevance of the approach will end the analysis. Statement of Purpose The research aims to establish how the freedom approach to criminal justice is more important regarding goal prioritization and criminal justice efficiency than the currently available models of justice. Goal prioritization is essential for any institution as it helps identify the critical success factors relevant to it and exposes those variables that either lead to the success or failure of a proposed model (Gates, 2010, p.24). The reason for making this presupposition is because the prevalent justice models: crime control and due process, are not universally applicable per se since they represent the conflicting interests and values operating within the criminal justice. The tensions that exist between the crime control and due process models bring about disharmony which undermines the efficiency and effectiveness of the criminal justice system as it ought to be. To declare that one is better than the other requires one to make a valued judgment, which presents opportunities for i nconsistency due to the subjective views of the different law enforcement agents. The freedom approach thus attempts to unpack the competing goals ascribed and applied to the criminal justice system. While crime control is conservative, and it is more interested in promoting order and social stability, the due process model is quite libertarian and helps protect people and their property from harm (Roach, 1999, p.677). The â€Å"Freedom Approach† Very few people would argue against convicting the guilty, protecting the innocent, and everyone else from any arbitrary and oppressive treatment. Many people support the rhetoric that the criminal justice system should treat victims with respect and make sure that this is pursued efficiently and proportionately (Sanders, 2017, p.1). The problem with this is that the world is not a perfect place and the justice models that exist today cannot operate at a 100% efficiency. The best that we can do is develop practices and approaches that take the effectiveness of the justice system as close to optimality as possible. Other than that, it must be recognized that there will always exist a conflict between justice models, primarily because of the difference in goal prioritization, and the considerations made when selecting what goals to pursue. According to Sanders (2010, p.47), the values and interests of the criminal justice system are varied, and Packer’s two justice models striv e to ensure that they are adequately covered. However, they are each incomplete in meeting all these obligations and are also not normatively acceptable. The human rights perspective is the proposed alternative to solving the gaps preexistent in the crime control and due process models. Nonetheless, it also has its flaws as it has not been as fruitful and comprehensive to use when understanding, critiquing or developing the criminal justice. Andrew Sanders argues that a simple remedy to the problems brought about by the previous models to criminal justice is to support crime repression objectives from a freedom perspective. Freedom should be the ultimate objective of the criminal justice process, and all the actions taken by the different actors should work towards this, thus rendering freedom as a kind of common currency. According to Sanders, the primary goal of safeguarding victims, offenders, and other individuals impacted by the crime and the criminal justice system, is to ensure that freedom is either enhanced or protected appropriately (Sanders et al., 2010, p.48). Protection should not be considered as the ultimate goal in itself, but as a means to an end which leads to the facilitation of the respective freedoms of these individuals. The freedom approach is based on a human rights foundation, but also entails much more than just protecting the minimalistic â€Å"safety net† rights. The human rights provis ions may have provided a basis from which criminal justice agents can carry out inquisitions and crime control (Sanders, 2010, p.48). However, human rights play a vital role in the outcome of all the processes combined. The freedom approach takes on an absolute approach which tends to combine all the efforts put into the respective justice models to achieve the most favorable aspirations by the community: to live in a society that is free of crime. The freedom approach tends to consider the implications of a crime and the methods through which justice is carried out. Through it, law enforcement agencies are supposed to appraise how much freedom would be constricted by an action before deciding upon which decision to make concerning that particular crime. Sanders suggests that by careful, and fair selection of the issues to consider in a court case, it becomes possible to rank the problems by order of their importance (Sanders et al., 2010, p.48). Justice is measured based on the freedom ascribed to it. For example, when a crime occurs and is directed to the victim, it means that the individual is denied the freedom to enjoy whatever was taken from them or made them suffer. The freedom approach is based on consequentialism ethics, where judges value their decisions based on the consequences of an act. Sanders suggests that distribution sensitive rule-consequentialism is far better equipped to promote freedom as it adheres to the rules put in place unlike the individual act-consequentialism theory (2010, p.49). The latter can easily undermine the manner in which it promotes freedom due to the uncertainty caused by imperfections caused by factors such as inaccurate information, time constraints, and personal prejudices. It is based on an actor selecting the action to take after evaluating which alternative act would maximize the value gotten from the decision. In short, Sanders is more concerned about whether the measure taken (from any justice model, with consideration of the human rights), will curb instances of recidivism or ensure that guilty individual do not continue roaming free. In a way, the freedom approach tends to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the criminal justice both in the short and long run. As long as the criminal justice department can critically analyze the implications of an action regarding a particular case and make favorable inferences as to the repercussions of the action with precision, then the criminal justice is in a better position to justify their decisions. According to Quirk et al. (2010, p.62), the reform of the freedom and equality principles as regards to criminal justice may have led to the rebalanced favor of the victim and away from the accused, arguing that the former may have more esteem than the latter. Suspects make up part of the community, and their rights are meaningful as well. Hen ce, an appropriate justice measure should consider the impact of a criminal justice decision that is inclusive of the ‘reformed’ individual if they are to make decisions that remain effective even after the individual is out of corrections. It is what Sanders terms as a balance of freedom (Sanders, 2017, p.1). Provisions of the Freedom Approach Method The freedom approach makes some arrangements for law enforcement agencies regarding how to assess and deal with crime. They also form part of the advantages that accrue in the name of seeking out justice. They include: A balance of freedom. The freedom approach does not discriminate as to who the implications of more liberty in a society apply to once the justice process is complete. Cost-effectiveness. The freedom approach sways attention from the partiality of the victim’s needs as they would be counterproductive for the overall freedom of the community as well as the hope for recidivist tendencies. Impact on law enforcement and criminal procedures. By focusing on the freedom approach, the criminal justice agents are inclined to carry out the justice processes with dignity so that they can minimize the risk of recidivism, while also working in alignment to their specified roles. It prevents officials from working outside their assigned responsibilities, which also tends to protect the marginalized community. A balanced approach for both victims and the accused. None of the associated parties have the upper hand as each is allowed the same information, services, and involvement in the restorative process as the other. Criminal Justice Core Values In order to understand the degree of efficiency and effectiveness that the freedom model is capable of when used in the criminal justice processes, it would be prudent to compare its relation to the three core values of the justice system: Justice, Democracy, and the Three Es (efficiency, effectiveness, and economy) (Sanders, 2017, p.1). I. Justice Justice may have very many meanings depending on the context in which it is used. According to a study carried out by Clark, the participants had varied opinions on what they considered to encompass justice. To some, it involved retribution while for others acknowledgment of the crimes committed is enough for them. For others, the safety of the entire community was what justice was all about (Clark, 2011, p.75). However, what researchers have found to be true is that there are two case scenarios from which justice can be achieved: for the victim or the accused. A discussion of the notion of justice is an essential starting point for determining whether the criminal justice system is what it proclaims itself to be and its capability to deliver what people expect it to (Clark, 2011, p.39). According to research by Hurlbert and Mulvale (2011, p.9), they mention that the principles of justice are linked to fairness, entitlement, moral righteousness, and equality. As such, any described f orm of justice describes the normative standards and how the principles mentioned above are implemented. Fairness is a reaction to those standards (Goldman and Cropanzano, 2015, p.315). As part of the explanation given by Andrew Sanders in his move to push for the use of a ‘freedom approach to criminal justice, he states that justice and fairness must be held to a high account as part of the concern to maximize human freedom (Sanders, 2010, p.49). His argument is inclined to relate this to a distribution-sensitive consequentialism principle. What is behind this concern is the thought that certain deontological values and norms of justice are so fundamental and essential that they ought to be protected and promoted as intrinsic values. They would include the equal worth and dignity of persons, as well as the respect given for each (Ernst and Heilinger, 2011, p.118). The freedom approach ensures that each person is treated to the same justice process by basing the outcomes on the normative human rights, and an inclusive policy of criminal analysis. What this means is that the overall freedoms of the victim, the accused, and the community are considered, and ruli ngs are made that align to the outcome that is most advantageous to the society at large while working within the standard rules of justice (Sanders, 2010, p.58). As much as the freedom approach follows an inclusivity principle, it binds law enforcement agents to their duties. At the end of a criminal case, the victim should be in a position to claim that they are satisfied with the justice given, the accused (if guilty) should be content with the ruling given, and the justice system should be in a position to claim that the outcome of the verdict serves in the interests of the community. II. Democracy According to Bretherton (2015, p.278), for the criminal justice to grow more just, it must allow for those who bear more cost of crime and punishment to exercise more power over those who enforce the law and give out punishment. Simply put, any policy or professional practice such as criminal justice should allow for the contribution of wisdom, knowledge, and experience of those it affects. By doing so, democracy helps enhance democratic citizenship by promoting skills, responsibility, neighborliness, and agency of those it affects with regard to any policy or professional practice. According to Kleinfeld (2016, p.1466), democracy within the criminal justice system should achieve the objective of enhancing the ethical life upheld by the community living under law and government. An ethical life reflects the values disclosed by a community’s public deliberations, provided that these deliberations are non-oppressive in their application (Kleinfeld, 2016, 1466). A core principle of the freedom approach is that it recognizes the value of each of the parties involved in the justice model. The fact that it makes a significant consideration for the rights and freedoms of the society as a whole is an indication that the approach respects the democratic aspect of justice. Sanders claims that the types of freedom that the criminal justice system should enhance include those of the broader community and in an equal fashion (2010, p.54). Another tenet of the freedom approach is that it takes into consideration other aspects of society which encroach on the freedoms that the criminal justices set out to protect (Sanders, 2010, p.56). The inclusionary approach includes consideration for others and obedience to the law; made possible by explanation, discussion, experience, and example. It is in line with the proposed responsibility, neighborliness, and agency that democracy purports to uphold (Kleinfeld, 2016, p.1466). It allows the public to respect th e authority held by the criminal justice system while reducing opportunistic instances of imposed power. III. Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Economy The criminal justice system’s credibility depends on its performance. Poor performance renders much of the criminal justice processes questionable and unstainable. The diffused lines of accountability for performance within the criminal justice system makes it vulnerable to criticism and slow to adopt measures that ensure its efficiency (Dandurand, 2014, p.385). The community that relies on the criminal justice system to make them feel safe tends to undermine the credibility and authority they ascribe the institution if at all they perceive that it is unable to meet the public’s expectations of fairness, timeliness, and transparency (Dandurand, 2014, p.385). Also, of significance is the ability to manage the costs of carrying out justice since failure to do so leads to the potentiality of a funding crisis, that may require severe cuts in the budget. The result of this is the inability to be effective in dispensing justice, especially with the increasing number of court cases. As such, it has been argued that justice systems that are unable to be both effective and efficient in carrying out their duties make it less relevant to conflict resolution, public safety, and crime prevention (Dandurand, 2014, p.385). First of all, the freedom model is both efficient and cost-effective. All criminal justice systems rely on taxpayer money to acquire resources needed to make sure they feel secure in the country it operates. What the freedom approach does is that it assures a high rate of low recidivism by utilizing the most suitable approach to ensuring that both justice and safety are guaranteed. According to Sanders, time and cost constraints are among the most significant impediments to efficient crime control. Due process, on the other hand, may extend the work and investigation needed to conclude a case, which may eat into the allocated criminal justice. It would mean that funds may be taken from other crucial sectors such as health and education (Sanders, 2010, p.37). Due process may, therefore, have raised the cost imposition of judgment and punishment (Simon, 2017, p.30). Requiring the taxpayers to pay more to cater for additional expenses that would be incurred to unnecessarily punish peopl e through correction systems constrict the freedom of the community as they have to appropriate more of their money to paying for these services directly or indirectly (Sanders, 2010). The freedom approach allows for law enforcement agencies to consider the most successful method of crime control while making deliberate considerations on the cost that it would impose on the judicial system in future. Fundamentally, the question to ask is whether the accused person poses a future risk or the possibility of reoffending and then suggest a legal remedy to ensure that such probabilities are limited or close to none. In theory, a criminal justice system that successfully achieves incapacitation, deterrence, and control through the use of programmes offered to delinquents and offenders can be said to be effective in its methods when compared to the freedom approach (Butorac et al., 2017). The reason is simple, the inhibition of criminals means that the rest of the community gets to enjoy their freedoms, such as owning property or walking alone at night, etc. which is the objective that the freedom approach wishes to push. Hence, under the freedom approach, the criminal justice will strive to use the available resources in a manner that gives assurance that the objectives mentioned above can be achieved. Furthermore, the performance of the criminal justice system Is what determines its perceived effectiveness. The rate of recidivism is considered a performance measure of the criminal justice system (King, 2014, p.2). Since the objective is of the freedom approach is to ensure that recidivism does n ot occur, it can be argued that the method satisfies the third element of the three E’s: effectiveness. Criticism of the Freedom Approach One of the significant criticisms of the use of the freedom approach is whether it is indeed operational as Andrew Sanders claims it to be. The question is not without merit because it is far from clear how law enforcement agencies seek to identify the differential freedoms and unfreedoms. For example, take the case of a budding footballer who has a career ahead of him. If an attack on him leads to them breaking a leg, meaning that they cannot pursue their career, would his/her reduction of freedom be similar or count for more than those of a bed-ridden pensioner who cannot experience any loss of freedom in practice? In another example, would it be seemingly fair not to imprison a burglar with five children depending on him/her and imprison one that has no dependents at all? As such, these questions insinuate that the freedom approach method may be difficult to operationalize because individuals’ experience and relationship to acts defined as crime are influenced by wealth, po wer, and opportunity inequalities (Matsueda and Grigoryeva, 2014, p.20). However, Andrew Sanders was quick to acknowledge that such a critical point would be argued as one to undermine his model’s development and application. He makes this apparent in his argument of Conor Gearty’s analysis of human rights. The respect for human rights should include equivalent respect for their dignity. According to Quirk et al. (2010, p.61), the DNA of human rights rests within the principles of dignity, legality, and democracy. Andrew believes that dignity is characterized by autonomy (ability to practice human agency), real choice (requires a minimum level of education, health, and resources), and every individual should possess the liberty to exercise the options (Quirk et al., 2010, p.60). The respect for human rights requires justice officials both not eroding its elements while actively promoting people to pursue them, Other than that; inequalities can only lead to the erosion of dignity (Shukla, 2011, p.11). With that said, Quirk mentions that crimi nal justice should be a matter of social justice and law enforcement officials should try as much as possible not to let social inequalities hamper the ideal of justice and fairness (2010, p.61). It can be done by balancing social justice priorities, which resounds with Andrew Sanders’s freedom approach. Andrew Sanders freedom approach draws on John Rawls political liberalism. The reason for this being that it forms the basis from which scholars and law enforcement officers can carry out critical reflection as to what would give criminal justice the impetus it needs to realize success. According to John Rawls, two fundamental principles need to be considered to achieve the conception of justice as being fair entirely. The first is that each individual has an equal claim to the fundamental rights and liberties afforded to them, and the second is that social and economic inequalities are to exist under two conditions. The first is that people that hold these positions must be in offices must offer their services with fair equality of opportunity and that the most significant benefit should be to the most disadvantaged (Welson, 2011, p.85). In so doing the freedom approach requires that law enforcement officials carry out their duties, and make decisions while keeping in mind that the m inority may have limited representation on the socially acceptable policies which make up law. Conclusion The analysis takes on the task of evaluating the ‘freedom approach’ by critically analyzing its principles and application. The research shows that it satisfies the core values of justice and it is, therefore, a viable model to use in the criminal justice process. With regard to the justice principle, the research shows how Andrew Sanders equates his freedom approach to a rule-consequentialism argument. The values of the society are upheld by the model, with close alignment to the rules that maintain social order. The democratic principle of justice also holds due to the inclusivity aspect of the freedom model; observing that the community comprises of both suspects and victims and a preferred justice scenario would be that which optimizes the freedom of either. Finally, freedom approach has been deemed effective, efficient, and cost-effective to satisfy the three E’s of the justice core value. These ideas help conceptualize the framework developed by Andrew Sande rs by showing its interconnectivity with the core aspects associated with free and fair justice for all. Furthermore, Andrew Sanders has a rebuttal for criticism directed at his model stating that countries must ensure that they have in place, laws and policies that take note of their minority groups. It ensures that the freedom approach does not only benefit the empowered in society. The freedom approach does away with quantifying whether a criminal procedure is too harsh or too lax, or whether the law enforcement agencies made the right decisions or not. Instead, the goal that maximizes the freedom of the community will be the most appropriate. It will have guaranteed that careful evaluations and extrapolations have been made, and an assurance that law enforcement takes the issue of equal and fair treatment of its citizens seriously when delivering justice. . References Bretherton, L., 2015. Democracy and the Criminal Justice System. Political Theology, 16(3), pp.273-278. Butorac, K., Gracin, D. and Stani?, N., 2017, January. The challenges in reducing criminal recidivism. In PUBLIC SECURITY AND PUBLIC ORDER. Clark, H.C., 2011. A fair way to go: criminal justice for victim/survivors of sexual assault (Doctoral dissertation). Crocker, D., 2016. Balancing justice goals: restorative justice practitioners’ views. Contemporary Justice Review, 19(4), pp.462-478. Daly, K., 2012. Aims of the criminal justice system. Crime and justice: A guide to criminology. Australia: Thompson-Reuters. Dandurand, Y., 2014, December. Criminal Justice Reform and the System’s Efficiency. In Criminal Law Forum (Vol. 25, No. 3-4, pp. 383-440). Springer Netherlands. Ernst, G. and Heilinger, J.C., 2011. The philosophy of human rights: Contemporary controversies. de Gruyter. Gates, L.P., 2010. Strategic planning with critical success factors and future scenari os: An integrated strategic planning framework (No. CMU/SEI-2010-TR-037). CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INST. Gloppen, S., 2014. Courts, corruption and judicial independence. Corruption, Grabbing and Development: Real World Challenges. Goldman, B. and Cropanzano, R., 2015. â€Å"Justice† and â€Å"fairness† are not the same thing. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(2), pp.313-318. Hurlbert, M. and Mulvale, J.P., 2011. Defining justice. Margot Hurlbert. King, R.S. and Elderbroom, B., 2014. Improving recidivism as a performance measure. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Kleinfeld, J., 2016. Three Principles of Democratic Criminal Justice. Nw. UL Rev., 111, p.1455. Matsueda, R.L. and Grigoryeva, M.S., 2014. Social inequality, crime, and deviance. In Handbook of the social psychology of inequality (pp. 683-714). Springer, Dordrecht. Potter, G., Wilson and van den Haag, 2014. Conservative Theories of Crime Control. Quirk, H., Seddon, T. and Smith, G. eds., 2010. Regulation and Criminal Justice: Innovations in Policy and Research. Cambridge University Press. Quirk, H., Seddon, T. and Smith, G. eds., 2010. Regulation and Criminal Justice: Innovations in Policy and Research. Cambridge University Press. Roach, K., 1999. Four Models of the Criminal Process. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 89(2), p.671. Sanders, A., 2017. The CPS, policy-making and assisted dying: towards a ‘freedom’approach. Journal of Criminal Law. Sanders, A., Young, R. and Burton, M., 2010. Criminal justice. Oxford University Press. Schmalleger, F., Donaldson, S., Kashiwahara, K., Koppal, T., Chase, S., Brown, A., Jarriel, T. and Marash, D., 2014. Criminal justice today. Prentice Hall. Shukla, S. K. (2011). Dignity and Human Rights: A Missing Dialogue? Available at. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 4(5), 370–373. https://doi.or g/10.15373/2249555x/may2014/111 Simon, J., 2017. Governing through crime. In Law and Poverty (pp. 97-115). Routledge. Welson, E., 2011. John Rawls political liberalism: implications for Nigerias democracy. Woolhandler, A., 2015. Procedural Due Process Liberty Interests. Hastings Const. LQ, 43, p.811.

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Rhetorical Analysis Of The Birth Control Solution By...

Liana Curley Ms. Cook Eng102 #20792 19 Sep 2017 Paper 1: Rhetorical Analysis Essay - Rough Draft The world population is only growing. The U.N. predicts that from today’s 7.5 billion we will reach 9.3 billion by the year 2050. (World Population Prospects n.p) In New York Times author Nicholas Kristof’s article, The Birth Control Solution, Kristof attempts to promote family planning as a solution to many of the world’s problems. He will do this by giving examples that an out of control global population causes poverty, conflict, and environmental damage; and that family planning would be a cost effective solution. Kristof first lets us know how dire the situation is with worldwide population only growing upward at an unstoppable pace.†¦show more content†¦He uses Afghanistan and Yemen as examples. While hard to prove, increased population means increased casualties in war no doubt. His next answer is that overpopulation causes more poverty. While he gives no specific example of this in his article, it is not hard to fathom that resources will become more limited for the poor to afford if we continue down the path of overpopulation. Lastly, Kristof believes booming populations will cause massive environmental catastrophes. Particularly, Kristof mentions overpopulation will â€Å"make it impossible to protect virgin forests or fend off climate change.† He is right, with more people more trees will be cut down to make space for homes and extra lumber. Kristof ‘s most important solution to the overpopulation pandemic is worldwide access to contraceptives. He notes that some countries still have lackluster access to contraceptives, â€Å"In rural Africa, I’ve come across women who have never heard of birth control.† (Kristof A31) With this statement, he lets us know that he has personally seen the problems of undersized population control regulation and that he is an authority on the issue. â€Å"What’s needed isn’t just birth control pills or IUDs. It’s also girl’s education and women’s rights. (Kristof A31) † Kristof’s logic in this is that educated women have fewer children. He gives no evidence for this however, it is not difficult to come to the conclusion that if more women would know about the risks

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Sexuality And Gender Identification A Perspective Point...

This analysis the focal point regarding the readings focuses around sexuality and gender identification. First, in Chapter twenty-two, Kaja Silverman clarifies both Freud and Lacan’s theories from a perspective point of view. Additionally, in Chapter Twenty-eight, Jacqueline Rose highlights identification of sexuality and feminism. Finally, the article conducted by, Keith Reader, explains different ways to exemplify â€Å"self† identification in regards to gender identity. Beginning with Chapter Twenty-two Silverman elaborates Lacan’s theory regarding semiotic linguistics and anthropology. In Chapter Twenty-two Silverman examines the delivery of Jacques Lacan’s theories, which mirror those of Freud. Lacan extends the works of Freud, â€Å"retaliating the works of Saussure and Levi-Strauss† (Silverman, 1999). Furthermore, Silverman utilizes the â€Å"Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis†, to describe Lacan’s seminars and writin gs. The male and female were one body, in the beginning. Because of the power of these bodies, Zeus separated the bodies, and in doing so created turmoil of separation, and created a void of confusion. The article then explains that Zeus felt sorry for the bodies and turned their privates around, enabling them to rejoin temporarily. Also, Silverman implies that the inclusion of this story is, â€Å"because it contains a number of critical Lacanian assumptions. One of these assumptions is that the human subject derives from an original whole which is divided inShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Queer Theory On Post Secondary Sport Teams1397 Words   |  6 Pagesof Queer Theory On Post-Secondary Sport Teams Shayna Stoymenoff SDS378 Instructor: David Pereira February 29, 2016 The issue of sexuality in sports is highly complex and controversial. 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It is dedicated to improve knowing of variations among groups of women and men - as wellRead MoreThe Rap Artist Nicki Minaj Released The Platinum Hit Single Titled Anaconda 1533 Words   |  7 Pagesimportance on the sexualized female body from a female perspective. Through Minaj’s song, it can be read as an interruptive declaration championing women’s’ self-esteems, body, confidence, and sexual agency. â€Å"Anaconda† contains deeper connotation beyond provocation and innuendo. It silences the white patriarchal construction of black female bodies as expendable sexual objects. This analysis recognizes problematic constructions of race, gender and the body within society and how they are defied inRead MoreGender Inequality : Gender And Gender2004 Words   |  9 PagesGender is a very complex term beyond the ordinary constructs that society assigns to it. In a well-pronounced western culture, gender is largely viewed in two binary concepts, the perspect ive of male and female. 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Sunday, December 8, 2019

Leadership and Supervision Majors †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Leadership and Supervision Majors. Answer: Introduction Change is inevitable for any organization looking forward to growth, efficiency, innovation, and more general success. To meet the goals, targets, and expectations in a corporation, there is a need for development and implementation of new ideas (Bolaji, 2011). Change is an enhanced interlocking between an organization and the setting in which it is evolving as well as a more effective and efficient working methods (Freeman McVea, 2014).To effectively implement change in an organization, it should be one that can be embraced by the majority of the corporation community. Richardson Timber Product Corporation needs a positive change by all means to realize a significant growth. The purpose of this report is to analyze the issues in B. R. Richardson Timber Product Corporation and how they have affected the organization. Also, it is purposed to suggest probable measures to be undertaken to cope with the challenges. The report evaluates the situation of Richardson Timber Product Corporation and critically analyzes the corporation operation and management issues. The analysis is drawn from the responses provided by the organization employees and observations during a visit to the company. Technology is an ever-growing process. Technological developments in an organization increase the aspirations and expectations of employees, investors, customers, competitors and other stakeholders of the corporation (AkinsayaMomoh, 2012). It also develops the concept of competition with other producers and suppliers. Embracing modern means of communication is very vital in conveying information among the organization's management, employees, consumers, and suppliers. Richardson Timber experiences communication issues among the management and employees. Juanita reiterates that information concerning the flow of cash in the organization is a weak spot of Joes administration. Some members' supervision regarding their performance is poor leading to sloppy work. An example is Nita misbidding because Sue did not get the bid back to a customer. Another instance is when Sue ran out of invoice papers which meant that they had to scamper around to look for a solution. Therefore, it is the res ponsibility of the management to keep pace with the growing technology to maximize the opportunities for success (Patrick, 2010). Richardson Timber ought to embrace modern information technologies to improve consumer satisfaction and employee performance. Poor corporate social responsibility The relationship between an organization and the public plays a significant role in its success. A corporation is obliged to develop and maintain a functional association with the society in which it is established (Beverungen Case, 2011).The company and the people around need each other equally (Beverungen, Dunne Hoedemaekers, 2013). The organization is meant to serve the community satisfactorily and contribute significantly to the growth of the society. Richardson Timber has a poor reputation in the community. The lousy relationship is as a result of increased matters of turnover, accidents, and fatality. For instance, Fuller was hit by a beam and was off for seven weeks. He was replaced. The organization has failed to create a propitious environment for workers. The glue section is overcrowded making movement around difficult. There are band saws without guarding which can cause accidents. Furthermore, workers use helmets of poor quality which endangers their safety. Therefore, the management should ensure that they put safety measures in their operation right from cutting trees, transportation, and processing to manage accidents and death. Employees are essential elements of a corporation. When the management and the workers share the same values goals and attitudes, it becomes easy for an organization to meet its objectives (BjerregaardLauring, 2013). Maintaining mutual relation between managers and workers boosts morale improving performance (Benrazavi Silong, 2013). Employees ought to feel they are in charge of their work and can perform their duties at their convenience. Some workers at Richardson Timber tend to be unhappy. Employees overwork and have no enough time for their families and leisure which causes unrest at work. They have a softball team, but some are frustrated because they cannot always play for they work into the late evening. Additionally, the management does not care about the worker's conditions and welfare. The employees are expected to work regardless of the prevailing circumstances. For instance, one worker was hurt and died, but the other employees were supposed to work with their colleague dead. Workforce diversity Workforce diversification dimensions mainly consist of age and gender. It affects an organization in several ways. It can be a source of creativity, cost advantage, marketing, conflict resolution, resource acquisition, and system flexibility (Engelen, 2011). Most of the workers at Richardson Timer Product Corporation are youngsters. They do not take their work seriously and are not very responsible. They take off whenever they feel it leading to an increase in employee turnover in the organization. Eventually, the companys performance is altered and its reputation diminished. Richardson Timber should balance its employees regarding age to bring in some more experienced workers. Their experience will not only be vital to the company's performance but also a role model to the youngsters (Diab Ajlouni, 2015). Incorporating employees of diversified ages and gender will help the organization in innovation and conflict resolution management among employees. Richardson Timber Product Corporation needs change for the organization to stabilize and cope with the challenges discussed above. The following models of organizational change management can be applied. Corporations are made up of systems which consist of four critical variables. These are structure, goal, technology, and players. In this model, structure involves communication, authority, responsibility, and work relations. Technology includes the total techniques and instruments used in striving towards the organizations objectives. Goals are considered as the rationale which supports the corporations existence and function. Players are the employees. These variables are inter-related such that when one is modified, change is realized on the others (Danish, Ramzan Ahmad, 2013). Richardson Timber Product Corporation ought to look into its structure, technology, goals, and players. Basing on the issues in the organization, a modification is needed in all the variables to realize the required change. The management needs to reevaluate its structure, that is, responsibility, communication, authority and their work relations (Ghorbanhosseini, 2012). Employees who are the players in this model should be provided with better and safe working conditions. Kurt Lewin argues that change occur when the forces which support the stability behavior of a system are modified. The situation of a given scheme at a given time is a result of interactive forces - those that maintain the status quo and those that try to modify it (Hafeez Akbar, 2015). When the two balances, then the organization is in a state of quasi-stationary equilibrium. This analytical model consists of three stages: unfreeze, transition and refreeze. This phase involves minimizing the forces which sustain the behavior of an organization at a particular level. This step can be realized by introduction of information which depicts the presence of an absolute distinction between the conditions expected by the workers and the current behavior. This phase is about modifying corporations behavior with the aim of progressing to another level of its plans. New attitudes and values are developed by changing the organizational processes and structures. The corporations management implements the changes required to meet the set goals in the system (Mhaskar, 2010). The employees are given time to adjust and accept the new values and attitudes introduced in the organization. At this stage, the implemented changes are reinforced to bring about stability in the organization. The reinforcement can be accomplished by converting the new behaviors into policies to bar introduction of more alternatives. Organizational norms, policies, culture, and structures are the main pillars which aid in supporting the implementation of refreezing phase. 7 - Stage Model This model was suggested by American authors; Jeanne Watson, Bruce Westley and Ronald Lippitt and it is a development of Kurt Lewins theory. The seven stages of this model are as follows: Existence and increasing of a need for change this step corresponds to the Lewin's unfreezing phase. This is the point when an organization identifies the challenges it is facing and develops a necessity to solve them. Setting an outline of relations attached to change in this phase, the relationship between the organization and the agents of change is established. The management initiates a scheme to try solving the issues identified. Analyzing the corporations concerns the issues in the organization are diagnosed to device appropriate measures in coping with them. Probing the alternative methods and goals targets and intentions for actions of change of the system are set. Converting aims into real efforts to change at this stage, the set measures are put into action steered towards the realization of needed change. Stabilizing change this stage corresponds to the refreezing phase in Lewins model. Modifications are implemented and reinforced to bring the change required. Defining the final relationship between the corporation and the change agents the organization assesses the progress of change. Conclusion Before modification is introduced, an organization is supposed to evaluate whether there is a need for change. The conditions in the corporation should be analyzed and a credible scheme that suits its needs developed. Also, it is vital to ensure that all the stakeholders are considered for significant modification to be successfully implemented. It is clear that there are a variety of factors which may trigger a change in a company. Various theories on organizational change management ought to be applied to corporations that need change. These models can be employed by the Richardson Timber Product Corporation to stabilize. Planning is crucial in implementing change process in an organization. Therefore, a corporation has to adopt the best model to modify its structure by creating an outline that is essential to the company. This framework provides guidelines which steer the company towards meeting the set objectives and intentions. Recommendations Various recommendations can be made based on the study. First and foremost, Richardson Timber Corporation should embrace modern information technology. The management must keep pace with the growing technology to maximize the opportunities for success. Computers can be used in the organization to serve various purposes such as financial analysis, documentations, and communication. Additionally, employees working conditions should be improved. The safety of workers ought to be given priority since they are the leading players in the production process. They have to be provided with quality helmets and ensure that equipment such as band saws have guards to avoid injuries. Also, Richardson Timber should empower its employees to make them feel to be part of the organization. Empowerment can be achieved through the provision of non-monetary benefits such as taking them to educational workshops, providing lunch at work and pension. Furthermore, more employees should be employed to reduce workload and minimize unrest at work. With enough workers, they can work in shifts to avoid overworking which is leads to accidents. References Akinsaya, A. O. Momoh, A. M. (2012).University Organizational Communication Climate and Management of Industrial Conflict. JORIND 10 (2)., pp. 171-174. Benrazavi, S. R. Silong A. D. (2013). Employees job satisfaction and its influence on willingness to work in teams. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 14 (1), pp. 127-140. Beverungen, A., Case, P. (2011). Editorial introduction: where is business ethics?. Business Ethics: A European Review Volume 20 Beverungen, A., Dunne, S. Hoedemaekers, C. (2013).The financialisation of Business ethics. Business Ethics: A European Review. Volume 22., Number 1. Bjerregaard, T. Lauring, J. (2013). Managing contradictions of corporate social responsibility: the sustainability of diversity in a frontrunner firm. Business Ethics: A European Review Volume 22 Number 2. Bolaji, A. B. (2011). Problems and prospects of corporate social responsibility in national development.Continental Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 2, No. 2., pp. 19-25. Retrieved Oct. 4, 2017 from Danish, R. Q., Ramzan, S. Ahmad, F. (2013).Effect of perceived organizational support and work environment on organizational commitment; Mediating role of self-monitoring advances in Economics and Business., 1 (4)., pp. 312-317. Diab, S. M. Ajlouni, M. T., (2015).The influence of training on employee's performance, organizational commitment and quality of medical services at Jordanian private hospitals. Engelen, B. (2011). Beyond markets and states: the importance of communities. UNESCO, Blackwell Publishing Oxford., pp. 489-500. Freeman, R. E. McVea, J. (2014).A Stakeholder Approach to Strategic Management. Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Virginia. Working Paper No. 01-02. Ghorbanhosseini, M., (2012).Analysis of team working on organizational commitment in Safa Industrial Group in Iran. International Journal of Engineering and Science, 1 (3), pp. 22 -25. Hafeez, U. Akbar W., (2015).Impact of training on employees performance.(Evidence from pharmaceutical companies in Karachi Pakistan). Business Management and Strategy, 6 (1), pp. 49-64.International Journal of Business and Management., 10 (2), pp. 117-127. Mhaskar, A. A. (2010). Differences in interpersonal skills between engineering and organizational leadership and supervision majors.College of Technology Directed Projects.Paper 25.Retrieved Oct. 4, 2017 from Patrick H. A. (2010). Organization culture and its impact on diversity openness in the information technology organizational context. Dimensions, 1(1), pp. 67-72.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Micro Unknown Lab Report Essay Example

Micro Unknown Lab Report Paper The rationale of performing these tests was to distinguish six different microbes room one another and to compare how their metabolic and biochemical processes differ from species to species to determine the unknown sample. The tests included: Triple sugar iron agar (TSAR), the Sulfide Indolent Mobility (SIMI) test, Glucose fermentation, the Methyl Red test, the Vogues-Prosperous test, Citrate test, the Areas Test, and finally the Gelatin test. The microbes that were tested during this lab were: Escherichia coli, Entertainer arrogates, Kielbasa pneumonia, Protest miracles, Pseudopodia organisms, and Salmonella typographic. The sample labeled #11 could have been any of the six microbes. A gram stain was performed to assess the shape and other characteristics of the bacteria, and to ensure that there was no gram positive contamination. Gram positive cells have a thick outer pedagogical layer that traps the crystal violet-iodine complex more than gram negative cells. As a result, they are less vulnerable to the De-colonization step with alcohol making them appear purple in color, while the gram bacteria negative appear pink. Triple sugar iron agar slant tests for multiple things: sugar fermentation of glucose, lactose, and sucrose, and the production carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The gases are easy to identify. If any carbon dioxide is produced cracks or bubbles appear inside of the medium, and sometimes enough CO is produced to push the slant up towards the top, this will be reported as +g. We will write a custom essay sample on Micro Unknown Lab Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Micro Unknown Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Micro Unknown Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The HAS is identified by how the gas reacts with an iron compound and makes the agar turn black. There are two possible types of sugar reactions that take place in the areas of the butt and the slant of the medium. The outcome of sugar metabolism will be acid production, so the pH indicator phenol red will turn yellow, and be reported as A. If there is no sugar diabolism, or alkaline by-products are made, will cause the indicator to stay the same color red, and reported as a K. THIS medium is prepared as a shallow agar with a deep butt, providing for both an aerobic and anaerobic environment. A THIS medium must be checked within about 12 hours to see if it ferments glucose, and again after 24 hours to see if it ferments lactose and sucrose. If the slant returns to being red and the butt is still yellow after this time period, the organism ferments glucose but not the other sugars. If it is completely yellow after the time interval, this indicates that the organism ferments all here sugars. SIMI Medium is used as differential test of microorganisms on the basis of hydrogen sulfide production, indolent production, and motility. The Sulfur reduction test is useful in differentiating enteric organisms, the Indolent test is used for differentiating the Interchangeable, and the Motility test is useful for testing a wide variety of organisms (condonable. Com). Casein is rich in thyrotrophic which is reduced and produces indolent by the enzyme transparency. Ferric ammonium sulfate is the indicator for HAS production. Once the medium was done incubating Kvass reagent was added to the tube. If the sample was positive the reagent would have a color change to red, if the reagent remained clear, a negative result was reported. Glucose fermentation uses Phenol Red Broth as differential test medium typically used to differentiate based on the color change of the pH indicator. Phenol red turns yellow below a pH of 6. 8, pink above a pH of 7. 4, and remains red in between. A Durham tube is used to collect any gas that may be produced, and is reported as (+g) if a bubble appears on the inside and (-) if the organism cannot ferment the glucose and no bubble is trapped inside the tube. If the broth turns yellow, it means that acid was produced and reported as A. If the organism can break down the amino acids be De-animation and ammonia is produced, this will raise the pH level turning it pink. This alkaline result was reported as K. The Methyl Red test is a differential test for bacterial respiration used to differentiate strains of chloroform bacteria capable of performing mixed acid fermentation that will lower the pH despite the phosphate buffer (http://faculty. Deanna. FDA. Due). Mixed acid fermentation is confirmed by using methyl red as an indicator. It is red ant pH 4. And below, allow at pH 6. 2 and above, and orange in between. Red is a positive result reported as (+), yellow is a negative result reported as and orange is negative or inconclusive. The Vogues-Prosperous test to detect organisms that are able to ferment glucose, but convert the products to action and 2,3-butadiene. This is deduced by the addition of Reagent A and Reagent B, and the observation of the color change thereafter. Reagent A is a solution of -naphtha and alc ohol. Reagent A catalysts the conversion of action to dedicate. Dedicate teens react with guanidine-containing compounds from the potent to form a red color in he presence of -naphtha. Reagent B is a solution of potassium hydroxide and water. It absorbs CO in the medium and acts as an oxidation agent, cataloging the reaction that converts action to dedicate (Dalton. Com). After the UP reagents have been added, a red color is observed, this is a positive result reported as if a copper color develops, the result is negative and reported as Citrate test uses Simmons citrate agar to see if the organism is able to utilize citrate as a carbon source. Only bacteria that possess the enzyme citrate-permeate can transport citrate inside the cell so it can be converted into private. Simmons citrate agar utilizes sodium citrate as its only carbon source and ammonium phosphate as the nitrogen source. The pH indicator biorhythms blue dye is green at a pH of 6. 9 and blue at pH of 7. 6. Bacteria that can survive on the agar and utilize the citrate, alkaline the agar by breaking down the ammonium phosphate to ammonia and ammonium hydroxide, both increase the PH. Any change to a blue color is a positive result reported as (+), and if there is no change and the agar remains green the result is negative and reported as (-). The Urea hydrolysis is catcalled by the enzyme areas. Areas catalysts the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia using water. A urea broth is used that contains yeast extract as its only nutrient source, buffers to inhibit localization of the medium, and phenol red as a pH indicator. Phenol red in this solution will be yellow or orange bellow pH 8. And pink above, to show any increase in PH. A pink color in the both indicates a positive result and reported as and an orange or yellow appearance the result is negative and reported as G). The Gelatin test is used to see if the microbe produces the enzyme gelatins. Gelatin is a protein made from collagen, made from animal connective tissue. Gelatins is an extracurricular proteolysis enzyme that aids in the breakdown of protein into amino acids (Harsh 244). Gelatin is used as the medium, which can liquid at room temperature but solidifies at about ICC. Since the gelatins enzyme can be quite slow, an incubation time o one week is needed. A positive test result will be reported if the sample remains a liquid after it is placed in the cold room, and a negative result will be reported if it re-solidifies. Experimental Proceed rest: The tests performed provided key information about the unknown bacteria and how it carries out its metabolic functions. The visualization of bacteria at the microscopic level is made possible by the use of various stains, which react with elements present in some cells but not others. The Gram stain was utilized in this procedure in four essential steps: apply the primary stain crystal violet, fix with iodine, decolonize with 95% ethyl alcohol to wash out the crystal violet-iodine complex, and the counter-stain Safaris was added. THIS medium was inoculated using an inoculating needle by stabbing the agar through the butt, and then the addle was pulled out and a streak was made up the slant. The THIS medium was incubated at ICC and checked after 18 and 24 hours for a change in color. ITS contains the three carbohydrates glucose, sucrose, and lactose. The medium also contains animal and yeast extract, and peptides as the sources of nitrogen, vitamins and minerals, and ferrous ammonium sulfate as the indicator for HAS. Phenol red is the pH indicator. (macromolecular. Org) The SIMI medium contains casein digest and animal digest to provide peptides to provide nutrients, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for growth. The SIMI medium was inoculated by stabbing the medium with an inoculating needle, and incubated at ICC for 24 to 48 hours. Once the medium was done incubating Kvass reagent was added to the tube to check for indolent production. Phenol Red Broth, used for glucose fermentation, contains potent, phenol red (a pH indicator), a Durham tube, and glucose. The broth is inoculated with the inoculating loop, and incubated at ICC for 48 hours. The Methyl Red broth contains potent, glucose, and a phosphate buffer. The broth is inoculated with the inoculating loop, and incubated at ICC for 48 hours. Once the sample is done incubating, a 1. 0 ml aliquot is taken and three drops of the Methyl red indicator is added. The results of a red color can be observed immediately if it is positive, otherwise it is a negative result. The Vogues-Prosperous broth contains potent, glucose, and a phosphate buffer just as in the MR.. Broth. The broth is inoculated with the inoculating loop, and incubated at ICC for 48 hours. Once the sample is done incubating, a 1. 0 ml aliquot is taken and 15 drops of Reagent A is added along with 5 drops of Reagent B. The result is monitored at ten minute intervals for 1 hour. The results of a red color can be observed if it is positive, otherwise it is a negative result if there is no color change. The Citrate test was lightly inoculated using an inoculating needle by streaking the slants with the unknown, incubated at ICC for 48 hours, and read for a color change. The Urea hydrolysis uses Rusticating and Stuart broth that contains yeast extract, monobasic potassium phosphate, adiabatic potassium phosphate, urea, and phenol red. The broth was heavily inoculated with the inoculating loop and incubated at ICC for 24 hours. The Gelatin test uses gelatin agar that also contains beef extract and potent. The medium is stab inoculated with an inoculating needle and incubated at ICC for up to 7 days. The sample is then placed in the cold room to check for re- solidification. Results: The gram stain procedure showed to be all gram negative pink, straight rods. They had no particular arrangement or clustering. TSAR SIMI test Glucose fermentation The Methyl Red test The Vogues-Prosperous test Citrate test The Areas Test Gelatin test Conclusion: Entertainer arrogates Material Methods Gram negative cells have a thinner pedagogical layer and a lipid membrane external to the cell wall

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Two Nation Theory of Subcontinent Essays

Two Nation Theory of Subcontinent Essays Two Nation Theory of Subcontinent Essay Two Nation Theory of Subcontinent Essay Essay Topic: Girl in Translation Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Uncle Toms Children â€Å"One lesson I have learnt from the history of Muslims. At critical moments in their history it is Islam that has saved Muslims and not vice versa. † (Sir Muhammad Iqbal) Why Ideology of Pakistan is Important: Today the world community comprises of more than 180 countries. Pakistan appeared on the world map in August 1947, and became the first Islamic ideological state of the modern times. Unlike the non-ideological states, it was not established due to any geographical conflict or territorial domination by a group of people. If the ideology of such a state like Pakistan is dead then its existence can be questioned.Therefore, Pakistan can’t exist if there is no more ideology of Pakistan. Pakistan is an ideological state†¦established in the name of the Islam. But on the 31st of December 1971, this land of ours, lost its east wing. And East Pakistan emerged on the world map as Bangladesh. The then prime minister of India Ms. Indra Gandhi claimed that the birth of Bangladesh is the death of the two-nation theory†¦ If, as said, the ideology of Pakistan came to an end in 1971, then the objective behind the creation of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan would have come to an end too.Purpose of Pakistan The breakup of the country in 1971 raised cynical eyebrows about national identity and gave rise to the theory of sub-nationalities on the basis of race, religion and language. Thus questions are being asked about the very existence of Pakistan. The debate about the motivating force behind the making of Pakistan has been one endless exercise. Was there any need of Pakistan at all? Is this just another Muslim state like many others? Was creation of Pakistan a conspiracy of the British and/or of Muslim League?Was it to retrieve the ancient glory of the Islamic era, or to find a base for the reconstruction of Islamic thought and the resurgence and re-adaptation of its message to our day and age? Was Pakistan created accidentally? Was the sacrific e of thousands of Muslims in 1947 useless? Should Pakistan and India be merged together to form â€Å"Akhand Bharat† to restore peace in the Sub-continent? What is Two Nation Theory? Two-Nation theory is the basis of creation of Pakistan. It states thatMuslims and Hindus are two separate nations from every definition; therefore Muslims should have a separate homeland in the Muslim majority areas of India, where they can spend their lives according to the glorious teachings of Islam. If Muslims of the sub-continent comprise an Islamic nation then they have the right to have separate homeland as Muhammad Ali Jinnah, (in his address to the annual session of Muslim League) mentioned and I quote: â€Å"History has presented to us many examples, such as the Union of Great Britain and Ireland, of Czechoslovakia and Poland.History has also shown to us many geographical tracts, much smaller than the sub-continent of India, which otherwise might have been called one country, but which have been divided into as many seven or eight sovereign states. Like-wise, the Portuguese and the Spanish stand divided in the Iberian Peninsula. † The Definition Of Nation The significance and reality of Pakistan has not been fully understood in the west. To the west, nationality based on religion is an alien and often-incomprehensible phenomenon.This is because religion in the West has come to play such a restricted role. In the West, Germans and French are accepted as two separate nations. However, the fact of Hindus and Muslims in India representing two separate cultural entities is seldom appreciated. A young French student may visit a family in Germany, share their meals, may attend the same church and even marry a girl in the family without creating a scandal or surprise. But such instances of intermarriage have been extremely rare in the Indo-Pak Sub-Continent.Even some of the most ardent Indian Nationalist has found the idea totally unacceptable. As Sir Abdur Rahim o bserved: â€Å"Any of us Indian Muslims traveling for instances in Afghanistan, Persia and Central Asia among Chinese Muslims, Arabs and Turks, would at once be made at home and would not find anything to which we are not accustomed. On the contrary, in India we find ourselves in all social matters total aliens when we cross the street and enter that part of the town where our Hindu fellow townsmen live. † Is Two Nation Theory A New ConceptA point generally raised by the opponent of the two-nation theory is that Pakistan was created accidentally and that the intellect of most of the Muslims at that time was overpowered by emotions. Moreover, that this phenomenon emerged in the early decade of the 20th century. But, what the history reveals is something different. Two-Nation theory was not at all as new phenomenon. History of Two Nation Theory Mahatma Gandhi, speaking in the second session of the Round table conference in London in 1931, said that the quarrel between Hindus an d Muslims was ‘coreview with the British advent’ in India.It would be difficult to maintain such a position historically because the conflict between Hindus and Muslims had started long before the emergence of the British power in India. The phenomenon of Two-Nation theory originated with the advent of Islam in the Sub-Continent (712AD). According to Jinnah, â€Å"The concept of two nation theory originated the day, the first Hindu converted to Muslim. † The partition of India was proposed more than seven hundred years prior to the Lahore resolution.In 1192 AD, on the eve of battle of Tarian, according to famous historian Farishta, Sultan Muizz-ud-Din had suggested to his rival, Pirthviraj, the partition of India, leaving the region of Sirhind, Punjab and Multan with Sultan and retaining the rest of India for himself. This proposal cropped up again after 150 years, when Al-Beruni pointed out the existence of the two big groups of people subscribing to two differe nt religions. â€Å"This (the religious difference) renders any connection with them† says Beruni, â€Å"quite impossible and constitutes the widest of gulf between them and us (Hindu and Muslims). |Perhaps Emperor Aurengzeb (1658-1707) was responsible for increasing Hindu Muslim tensions by trying to Islamize the Mughal | |government. Several Muslim historians have actually glorified Aurengzeb for making Muslims conscious of their separate religious | |and ideological identity. It is also true that Maratha and Sikh leaders raised their banner of revolt against Aurangzeb because | |in trying to organize his government on Islamic lines, the emperor was acting against their interest.Sir Jaduanath Sarkar’s | |observation on the role of Shivaji, the Maratha leader, is revealing: | |â€Å"Shivaji has shown that the tree of Hinduism is not really dead. That it can rise from beneath the seemingly crushing load of | |centuries of political bondage, exclusion from the adminis tration, and legal repression; it can put forth new leaves and branches| |it can again lift its head up to the skies† | |After Aurangzeb’s death, Muslim power started disintegrating.Muslims were so alarmed by the growing power of the Hindus under | |Maratha leadership that even a Sufi scholar like Shah Walliullha (1703-81) was moved into writing a letter to the Afghan King | |Shah Walliullah. He wrote: | |â€Å"In short, the Muslim community is in a pitiable condition. All control of the machinery of government is in the hands of Hindus,| |because they are the only people who are capable and industrious.Wealth and prosperity are concentrated in their hands; while | |the share of Muslims is nothing but poverty and misery†¦ At this time you are the only King who is powerful, far-sighted, and | |capable of defeating the enemy forces. Certainly it is incumbent upon you to march to India, destroy the Maratha domination and | |rescue weak and old Muslims from the clutch es of Non-Muslims. If, God forbid, domination by infidels continues, Muslims will | |forget Islam and within a short time become such a nation that there will be nothing left distinguish them from non-Muslims. | |This letter by Shah Walliullah to a foreign Muslim against the local Non-Muslims again reflects that Muslims living in any part | |of the world are the part of one Muslim Nation. | |The Two Nations | |Although the Hindus and Muslims had been living together for centuries in the Indian sub-continent, yet there had never been | |either any signs of merger of the Hindu and Muslims societies, or any serious attempt to develop a working relationship between | |the two major ethnic groups.The two have always remained as two distinct social systems, two separate and distinct cultures and | |last but not the least, two different civilizations. | |In fact, Hindu fanaticism has always been against those who do not belong to them and against all outsiders, whom they consider | |maleec h or unclean. So they are against having any connection with such people, what to speak of inter-marriage, a Hindu is often| |forbidden eat or drink or to even shake hand with a Muslim or for that matter with a person belonging to any other faith or | |religion.In short the Hindu customs and their hatred for Muslims was the main factor against developing a working relationship | |between the two major societies. | |Lala Lajpat Rai, a very astute politician and staunch Hindu Mahasabhite, in his letter to Mr. C. R. Das, which was written 12 or | |15 years prior to Pakistan Resolution, wrote: | |â€Å"There is one point more which has been troubling me very much of late and one which I want you to think (about) carefully, and | |that is the question of Hindu Mohammedan unity.I have devoted most of my time during the last six months to the study of Muslim | |history and Muslim law, and I am inclined to think it is neither possible nor practicable. Assuming and admitting the sincerity | |of Mohammedan leaders in the non-cooperation movement, I think their religion provides an effective bar to anything of that kind†¦| |And nothing would relieve more than to be convinced that it is so. But if it is right, then it comes to this, that although we | |can unite against the British, we cannot do so to rule Hindustan on British lines.We cannot do so to rule Hindustan on | |democratic lines. † | |[pic] |[pic] | Muhammad Ali Jinnah, (in his address to the annual session of Muslim League) mentioned: â€Å"It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism.They are not religions in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different social orders. It is a dream that the Hindu and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality; and this misconception of one Indian nation has gone far beyond the limits, and is the cause of most of our troubles, and will lead India to destruction, if we fail to r evise our notions in time. The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature.They neither intermarry, nor interline together and indeed they belong to two different civilizations, which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Musalmans derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, their heroes are different, and they have different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other, and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap.To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and the final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state. † Is Pakistan a Conspiracy of British And/Or Jinnah For the congress, the establishment of Pakistan was a cr uel blow to their claim of being a nationalist organization. It meant that Muslims did not trust the Hindus as a majority community to be just and generous towards Muslims interests and culture.This explains why congress leaders have often tended to attribute the creation of Pakistan almost entirely to the British policy of ‘divide and rule’. However, a closer look at the history after the establishment of the British rule in India will reveal that the Hindus were much closer to the British government than the Muslims. The Hindus, who were fed up with the Muslim rule, welcomed the British rule over India. This state of affairs resulted in the patronage of the Hindus by the British and suspicion and distrust against the Muslims of the sub-continent.The Hindus were economically better off than the Muslims. The events of 1857 further diminished the prospects of economic growth of the Muslim community in the sub-continent. From 1857 onwards, when the British had taken compl ete control of the Indian Administration, they elevated the Hindu community to the status of landlords, gave the Hindus proprietary rights and provided them the opportunity to accumulate the wealth which should have otherwise gone to the Muslims who were at the helm of affairs. Hindus were given more jobs in the government and military compared to Muslims.Lets now look see whether the establishment of Pakistan in 1947 as the largest Muslim state was a conspiracy of Jinnah. Muhammad Ali Jinnah remained an active member of the Indian National Congress for about 25 years, and because of his personal efforts to bring about a rapprochement between Hindus and Muslims was even hailed as the ‘Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity’. As long as effective power in India was in the hands of the British, it appeared as if a true nationalism was growing in that country.However, with the introduction of representative institutions and the devolution of political authority, the Hindus start ed showing their true colors by imposing their superiority over the Muslim minority, as a result of which a struggle between Hindus and Muslims ensued. Jinnah was greatly disappointed by these movements by the congress leaders and so he resigned from the Congress. The behavior of the Congress leader changed his mind and realized him that the Congress is a Hindu Congress. Another popular view regards Pakistan as no more than a personal triumph of the brilliant strategy and will power of Quaid-e-Azam| |Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Some have even gone so far as to suggest that had Jinnah died earlier, there would not have been any | |Pakistan. It is true that Jinnah’s great role was a highly important contributing factor; but without intense religious zeal for | |an Islamic state on the part of Muslim masses, Jinnah could not have achieved Pakistan.Khilafat leaders like Maulana Muhammad | |Ali and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and poets like Hali, Akbar Allahabdi and Iqbal were mainly respons ible for making Muslims | |conscious of their separate national and cultural identity. Thus, when the message of Pakistan was presented to the masses, it | |fell on fertile soil. Jinnah, who did not know Urdu, could not have achieved Pakistan without able and zealous lieutenants and | |without the vision of an Islamic state as an inspiring stimulant.One may even go so far as to say that the Muslim League, led | |largely by the middle-class Muslim Leaders, would have probably come to some sort of compromise on the issue of Pakistan had they| |not been swept off their feet by the intense Islamic fervor of the masses and the astounding success that the Muslim League | |achieved during the elections of 1945-46. It has been reported that the Quaid-e-Azam himself never expected to see Pakistan in | |his lifetime. |Congress leaders tried to challenge the two-nation theory by pointing out that a large number of Muslims in India were | |descendants of Hindu forebears who had converted to Isl am. They also argued that there was hardly any cultural difference between| |Hindus and Muslims in the rural areas where the vast majority of both communities lived. But these arguments could not alter the | |fact that a change in one’s religion from Hinduism to Islam in the Indian context not merely implied a change in one’s religion, | |but also a significant change in man’s social and cultural status.The new convert became the member of an egalitarian social and| |cultural force in large parts of India. Particularly in the North Western part of India, which constitutes Pakistan today, the | |dominant culture that emerged was clearly Islam. | |From Bande Mataram to Pakistan | |The first provincial elections under the 1935 Act were held in 1937, as a result of these elections, the congress was invited to | |form ministries in seven provinces.The attitude of the congress government towards the Muslims was very cruel, and it opened the| |eyes of Muslims to the im pending danger. The hostile attitude of Congress government towards the Muslims was by itself a proof of| |Hindus being a separate Nation. The experience of living under Congress rule was one major factor which shook the Muslims from | |their political slumber and made them instantly conscious of their distinct national identity. | |Let’s consider the example of â€Å"Bande Mataram†. The Bande Mataram was adopted as the national anthem in the Congress Governed | |provinces.Muslim children were compelled to sing this anthem, which the Quaid described as â€Å"Idolatrous and worse a hymn of | |hatred for Muslims. † | |The song â€Å"Bande Mataram† is from an old Bengali novel, Anand Math, written by Bankim Chandra Chattrji. It tells the story of a | |secret religio-political society of Hindus plotting the overthrow of the Muslim power in Bengal in the 18th century. The new | |recruits to the secret society recited the Bande Mataram as a vow. A new recruit, Mohendra, was led by the leader, Bhavananda, to| |the temple of Anand Math to have darshan of the Mother.In the first chamber Mohendra was greeted by a massive four-armed Vishnu,| |flanked by the idols of Lakshami and Arawati, and a lonely image sitting on his lap. Bhavanda pointing to the lady on the lap of | |Lord Vishnu told Mohendra that she is the Mother and we are her children. The next chamber was decorated with the image of | |Jagatdhari, another deity who was explained, as â€Å"The mother was first like this†, the next camber where ten-armed Durga was | |presiding, attended by Lakshami and Sarawati.Bhavanda explained: â€Å"This is what the Mother will be like†¦ when the enemy has been | |crushed under her feet†. Mohendra was overcome with religious fervor and chanted these lines of Bande Mataram to be confirmed as | |a member of the anti-Muslim secret society: | |[pic] |[pic] | Thou art Durga with ten arms: | |And thou art Lakshmi, the lotus ranging; | |And thou art Vani that Givweth knowledge; | |I salute thee | |The Congress Government went to such an extent as to replace Urdu by Hindi, banning of Cow slaughter and even celebrating | |Gandhi’s Birthday officially and compelling the students Hindus and non-Hindus to worship the picture of Mahatma Gandhi. | |From the above very brief but factual analysis of the relationship which had developed between the two major Communities of India| |i. e; the Hindus and the Muslims, it should no longer be a questionable proposition as to why the Muslims insisted on the | |partition of India and having a separate Homeland for the Muslims. | |The Tragedy of 1971 | |The separation of East Pakistan was no doubt the biggest tragedy in the history of Pakistan.However, it should not be regarded | |as death of Two Nation Theory. First of all Bangladesh, though no more a part of Pakistan but still is neither a Hindu state nor | |a secular state rather is a Muslim State. The elite of West Pakist an were not able to understand the real situation in East | |Pakistan and they absolutely failed to tackle it. In spite of all these mistakes by the government, the involvement of the | |foreign hand in separation of East Pakistan, is a solid reality. Those who cry today upon the â€Å"cross-border† terrorism in Kashmir| |(in spite of the fact that there is no international border in Kashmir) have totally forgotten the hands and faces behind the | |Muktibahini.The way the Bangla youth was brain washed by Hindu teachers and scholars is an open secret. The fact is that not | |much literature was available in the Bangla language about Islam, neither any translation of Iqbal nor of Moududi. On the other | |hand Robinder Nath Tegore and Chander Mukr Ji were very popular. | |The Muslim Bangladesh though no more a part of Pakistan is independent from the fright of Hindu domination. | |Ms. Indra Gandhi’s statement about the creation of Bangladesh, was by itself a proof of the existence of the Two-Nation Theory. | |She claimed that today ‘we’ have taken the revenge of the â€Å"1000’s years slavery†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ but in 1971 Pakistan was just 24 years old!!! | |Then what was she referring to by mentioning the 1000 years? Definitely she was talking about the era when Muslims ruled India. | |This means Pakistan didn’t emerge neither with the advent of British to India, nor is a result of â€Å"Divide and Conquer†, nor is a | |conspiracy of the Muslim League, nor is a symbol of nationalism based on territory. Pakistan-based on the Two-Nation theory | |existed long before August 47 in the heart of every Muslim of the Sub-Continent, who wanted the revival of the Muslim Ummah. | |[pic] |[pic] | Two Nation Theory At PresentKeeping in view the above discussion in light of facts and figures from history, it can be claimed that theTwo Nation Theory is a reality even today. Unfortunately, the Hindu community of the sub-continent has never accepted this reality from the very beginning and they still want to convert the Indo-Pak sub-continent to Maha Bharat. They want all non-Hindus to change their faith to Hinduism. The top leadership of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which is currently ruling India, has not only publicly denounced the two-nation theory but has also declared that it does not accept the partition of the Sub-Continent in 1947 which was based on this theory. On the same analogy, the BJP claims that Kashmir is an integral part of India.The BJP also advises the Muslims in India that they must stop looking towards Makkah and Medina as they can live only by accepting Hindutva. The BJP government, in order to assimilate the Muslim population in India with the Hindu majority, also intends to amend Muslim personal laws. A movement has also been launched in India, with the blessing of the BJP government, that all the Indians, irrespective of their religious beliefs, should call themselves Hindus, as th ey are the citizens of â€Å"Hindustan†. The non-Hindus in India, particularly the Muslims, are also being advised that by adopting the Hindu faith they may ensure for themselves an honorable place in the country.It may be recalled that Madhav Sadarish Golwalker, the head of the RSS, whom the Indian Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, considers his ‘soul and mentor’, in his book entitled â€Å"WE: our own nationhood defined†, while branding the Muslims of India as ‘enemies’ belonging to foreign races, recommended that ‘the foreign races in Hindustan’ must either adopt Hindu culture and language, must entertain no idea but those of the glorification of the Hindu race and culture, i. e; of the Hindu nation, must lose their separate existence to merge in the Hindu race, or may stay in the country, wholly subordinated to the Hindu race, claiming nothing, deserving no privilege, far less any preferential treatment – not even c itizen’s right.The enormous difficulties, which the Muslims are encountering for the protection of their religious beliefs and for the restitution of their political, economic and other rights in the so-called secular but Hindu-dominated India, bear testimony to the political acumen and far sightedness of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who so rightly had perceived the establishment of a separate state for the Muslims of the Sub-Continent to save them from unfair treatment by the Hindu Majority. Many opponents of the Two-Nation theory, base their arguments on the fact that India at present has a Muslim community, which is larger in population than the Muslim population in Pakistan.Therefore, according to the Two-Nation theory, Pakistan’s border should be opened to all of them, and in case this is not done then the creation of Pakistan was a selfish act of the Muslims living in the areas comprising Pakistan today, since, it has changed Muslims in India to an even small er minority. First of all opening the borders of Pakistan to all the Muslims is a misinterpretation of the Two-Nation theory, and is simply not applicable. Pakistan was created to have a fortress for the Muslim Ummah. All the Muslim leaders had it very much clear in their mind that all the Muslims would never be the citizens of Pakistan. Many of them became the citizens of India, after 1947, but had struggled for the creation of Pakistan, throughout their lives. Pakistan movement in the Hindu majority provinces was much stronger than in the Hindu minority areas. What does all this reveal?Pakistan is much more than a piece of land. They never struggled for a piece of land to name it Pakistan; they had struggled for the Ideology named Pakistan. The Muslim leaders of the sub-continent struggled for Pakistan on the same guidelines as the Islamic state of Medina Munawara. Many Muslims migrated along with the Prophet (Salalaho Allehe Wa Aalehi Wasalam) to Medina Munawara, however many of them were left in Makkah. Those who had migrated along the Prophet (Salalaho Allehe Wa Aalehi Wasalam) and those who were the citizens of Medina, lived peacefully. While those who were left in Makkah were subjected to the cruelties of the Kaffar in Makkah. Was this unfair with them?It would have been unfair if the people of Medina had not participated in Badar, Uhed and Khandeq and rather would have opted for celebrating â€Å"Basant in Pakistan† at the same time when the people from Pakistan had been sold in Tora Bora†. In that case it would have been unfair†¦ but this certainly does not mean that establishment of â€Å"Medina† was an unfair decision rather it meant that those elements should be subjected to accountability which turn â€Å"jihad till Fatah-e-Makkah† to â€Å"Basant Bahar – the part of our culture†. The condition of the Indian Muslims after fifty-five years reveals the truth of the so-called Indian secularism. The Muslim s in India are still getting a raw deal in every sphere of life. They are still living in the curse of poverty and backwardness. And above all they are still fighting the threats to their religious and cultural identity.The sense of insecurity experienced by the Indian Muslims in the post partition period has been compounded in recent years. In terms of numbers, the Muslims are only next to the Hindus, totaling 95. 2 million (1991 census) and constituting about 12 percent of the population. Yet they are considered by the Hindus even less important than the Jains and Buddhists who are only 0. 43 and 0. 41 percent of the population respectively (1991 census). A prominent Hindu writer S. Harrison admits that the dominant note in the Hindu attitude towards Muslim today is that, Hindus have a natural right to rule in modern India as a form of long overdue retribution for the sins of the Mughal overlords.It is not enough that unified state with a Hindu majority, clearly dominant over a Mu slim minority now reduced to 12 percent, has been established at long last in the Indian sub-continent. The fulfillment of Indian nationalism requires an assertion of Hindu hegemony over the Muslims of the subcontinent in one form or the other. They also have been subjected to the interference in their religion. It usually takes the form of insulting attacks on Islam made in school textbooks, or in the press, desecration of mosques and shrines, or deliberate incitement of feelings of religious hatred against the Muslims. In most of the Hindu dominated Indian states Hindu religious beliefs, philosophy and methodology have been introduced into the text books in the name of Indian culture,.This is to an extent that a glance through the officially prescribed school textbooks leaves an impression that those responsible for them regard India (a supposedly multi religious country) as the home of Brahmans and attach value only to their deities, temples, religious customs and practices. Cou ntless incidents can be cited of the desecration of mosques by the Hindu communists during the last few decades. The 16th century historic Babri mosque was razed to ground by thousands of Hindu fanatics in Ayodhya, (UP) on 16th Dec 1992 and the immense loss of human lives that followed was no secret. Conclusion The Two Nation Theory is still alive.Had there been no Two Nation Theory today, the issues like Kargil, nuclear arms race, and tension on the borders would have never risen. The basic conflict between India and Pakistani nation is still the same. Indians believe in nationality based on territory and therefore want to merge Pakistan back into India. While Pakistanis have been fighting for the last 52 years, to safeguard the Land which they got in the name of Islam. The Kashmir issue, if alive even after 52 years, in spite of India’s utmost effort to crush the lovers of freedom, is crystal clear proof of the reality of the Two Nation Theory. It should be understood that the creation of Pakistan was not the result of an accident but – it had a meaning.The meaning of Pakistan was not to have a separate homeland for the Muslims of Indo-Pakistan to have a better living; it was not to have industries or nuclear capability. The significance of the creation of the fortress of Islam was to give the Muslims of the Sub-Continent in particular and the Muslims of the world in general an idea of brotherhood. A brotherhood based on irrespective of color or creed. Pakistan wanted to have Unity among the Muslims from Morocco to Indonesia and to create a sense of spiritual vision that could be left and understand beyond this materialistic world in which man is fighting with man. The Muslim brotherhood has disagreements and the world is dominated by imperial powers and destined according to their